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The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world.Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods and ethical and social decisions that involve the application of scientific information. A system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact.Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment. The student is expected to: (A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations; and (B) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and field investigations.Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed; (D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories; (E) plan and implement investigative procedures, including making observations, asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology; (F) collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision; (G) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data, including making new revised hypotheses when appropriate; (H) communicate valid conclusions in writing, oral presentations, and through collaborative projects; and (I) use astronomical technology such as telescopes, binoculars, sextants, computers, and software. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to: (A) compare and contrast the scale, size, and distance of the Sun, Earth, and Moon system through the use of data and modeling; (B) compare and contrast the scale, size, and distance of objects in the solar system such as the Sun and planets through the use of data and modeling; (C) examine the scale, size, and distance of the stars, Milky Way, and other galaxies through the use of data and modeling; (D) relate apparent versus absolute magnitude to the distances of celestial objects; and (E) demonstrate the use of units of measurement in astronomy, including Astronomical Units and light years. The student knows the role of the Moon in the Sun, Earth, and Moon system. The student is expected to: (A) recognize that seasons are caused by the tilt of Earth's axis; (B) explain how latitudinal position affects the length of day and night throughout the year; (C) recognize that the angle of incidence of sunlight determines the concentration of solar energy received on Earth at a particular location; and (D) examine the relationship of the seasons to equinoxes, solstices, the tropics, and the equator. The student knows that planets of different size, composition, and surface features orbit around the Sun.The student is expected to: (A) identify sources and determine the amounts of water in a watershed, including rainfall, groundwater, and surface water; (B) identify factors that contribute to how water flows through a watershed; and (C) identify water quantity and quality in a local watershed. The student knows that geological phenomena and fluid dynamics affect aquatic systems.The student is expected to: (A) demonstrate basic principles of fluid dynamics, including hydrostatic pressure, density, salinity, and buoyancy; (B) identify interrelationships between ocean currents, climates, and geologic features; and (C) describe and explain fluid dynamics in an upwelling and lake turnover. The student knows the types and components of aquatic ecosystems.All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter.Change and constancy occur in systems as patterns and can be observed, measured, and modeled.



Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories; (C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers.This course is recommended for students in Grade 11 or 12. Students study the following topics: astronomy in civilization, patterns and objects in the sky, our place in space, the moon, reasons for the seasons, planets, the sun, stars, galaxies, cosmology, and space exploration.Students who successfully complete Astronomy will acquire knowledge within a conceptual framework, conduct observations of the sky, work collaboratively, and develop critical-thinking skills. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models.We offer a comprehensive list of geotechnical construction and design-buil...